the reasons why a particular project did not work can also be very valuable when developing guidelines and methodologies for project design. Together with their ability to keep pace with sea-level rise [27] this suggests that nature-based defences can become increasingly viable on sheltered coastlines. There is limited data in salt-marshes that suggests that wave reduction is linearly correlated with the relative height of the marsh, i.e. Yes This is in line with findings from [21] and [23]. Develop and scale cost-effective sustainable designs while building the skills and capacity of governments to design and maintain sustainable coastal infrastructure. (2016) The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Why Zoom when you can JingleRing? CBD Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 states: By 2020, at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water, and 10% of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for … The coastal setting and exposure data for each project location are derived from other sources (see S1 Methods). e0154735. There are multiple definitions, but the version I like best is one that says economic growth, environmental protection, and social justice are all important — and sustainable development is about doing all three. Studies that did not report data on either costs or benefits were also excluded. Yes For instance, the review of nature-based defence projects suggests that mangroves are effective protection measures against flooding from storms (Table 1, S3 Table). 1990. In this and upcoming articles, we’ll examine renewable energy options and make a cost-benefit analysis of our economy from the present through 2050. Absolute wave reduction extents are plotted against incident wave height for a) coral reefs (n = 27); b) mangroves (n = 11); c) salt-marshes (n = 14); d) seagrass/kelp beds (n = 5). Breakwater dimensions were computed per metre coastline using standard coastal engineering formulae [53]; see S1 Methods: Eqs [SI 11]–[SI 13]). Submerged breakwaters were chosen for the cost comparisons since these structures perform similarly with regard to reduction of wave heights at the coastline. [4] These analyses were performed only for coral reef and salt-marsh habitats. Sustainable … Wildlife Conservation Society / Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliation According to this study, the central benefits estimate exceeds costs by a factor of more than 30 to one. ... conservation and sustainable use of the environment. Coastal development linked to human settlements, industry, aquaculture, and infrastructure can cause severe impacts on near shore ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Broadly, wave reduction in habitats occurs by two mechanisms–(i) wave-breaking due to changes in water depth (i.e. Part of ... Plans are afoot to build huge islands and giant constructions in coastal areas, featuring the … Coastal areas are at risk as rising populations and growing urbanization prompt significant losses and damages to coastal habitats, impacting coastal and climate resilience. where, Vstruc is the volume per metre coastline of the breakwater and Cstruc_unit the unit construction cost of one cubic metre of breakwater, per metre coastline. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. Sustainable coastal development should not, however, be thought of as an "end state". Cost Benefit Evaluation of Ecoroofs 2008 (PDF) (37 pp, 2.1 MB, About PDF) —This report attempts to quantify the private and public costs and benefits of green roofs—or "ecoroofs"—in Portland, Oregon. Funding: This research was primarily supported by the by SNAP: Science for Nature and People, a collaboration of The Nature Conservancy, the Wildlife Conservation Society and the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). Coastal management Hard engineering management involves using artificial structures, whereas soft engineering management is a more sustainable and natural approach to manage coastal erosion. We were unable to find projects that reported specific comparisons to coastal structures or other measures of effectiveness (e.g., reduction of waves, erosion rates or flood volumes). For this, average values of habitat widths, water depths and vegetation heights were extracted from the data. The top five renewable options are solar, wind (on and offshore), geothermal, biomass, and water generation (hydro, tidal and wave generation). A number of restoration projects world-wide are being implemented specifically for coastal protection [13]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.g003. Integrate ocean and coastal management into surrounding frameworks, such as urban, catchment and land-use planning. Average effect size as log response ratio of the wave reduction, R due to each habitat type for coral reefs, salt-marshes, mangroves and seagrass/kelp beds. It will contribute to sustainable development of coastal zones by the application of an approach that respects the limits of natural resources and ecosystems, the so-called 'ecosystem based approach'. 10 G Street NE Suite 800Washington, DC 20002, USA, Phone +1 (202) 729-7600Fax +1 (202) 729-7610, Collaboration on Nature-Based Solutions is Key to Resilient City Infrastructure, Leveraging the Ocean's Carbon Removal Potential, Using the Ocean As a Tool for Global Economic Recovery, Forests and Wetlands Are Water Infrastructure. in wetland habitats like mangroves, marshes or seagrass beds). The advantages are so much that they are not exhaustive. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.t001. Tourism development in the coastal environment has interfaced with the original ... notwithstanding the rhetoric of sustainable development; economic viability is the bottom line of sustainable tourism operations [18, p. 7]. Yes F uture development will include tools that haven’t even been invented yet. This is causing coastal areas to sink and shrink. We also gratefully acknowledge support from the Lyda Hill Foundation, a Pew Fellowship in Marine Conservation to MWB, and the World Bank WAVES program. Such evaluation typically involves a before-after comparison of the coastal hazard at the site. It is important to note that coastal habitats are usually one of several structural, nature-based and non-structural measures for coastal protection [32]. Nature-based defences refer to restoration projects that specifically include coastal protection as an objective (definitions adapted from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report on Natural and Nature-based Features [12]). These are increasingly driven by global conventions and their funding mechanisms, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the green Adaptation Fund (AF), as well as the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) and lending from the World Bank. Strengthening regulations and increasing area-based conservation. Tourism development of infrastructure (airports, roads, etc.) New Green Bond Helps Finance Their Protection. Log in. Coastal Development. Economic Costs. While there are some indications that mangroves and marshes can offer protection from high water levels (Table 1), we do not find enough evidence on this for a comparison of effectiveness, and as such, focus on their wave reduction function. To successfully implement long-term ocean and coastal management plans, it is critical governments involve these communities in decision-making processes by: Diverting water before it gets to coastal areas can compromise the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. While coral reefs are also very similar to breakwaters in structure and wave reduction function, we do not find enough information on reef restoration projects for a direct cost comparison. Colours indicate habitat groups in both panels. The analyses of costs and benefits of nature-based defence projects were done for fifty-two restoration projects in coral reefs, oyster reefs, salt-marshes and mangroves, that were specifically targeted at coastal protection. Breakwater construction cost was assumed to be proportionate to the size of the structure [63,64], and using Eqs [9] and [10] the cost per metre coastline length was estimated for each replacement breakwater, The concept of sustainable development began to enjoy great popularity almost three decades ago, specifically in 1987, when it was used within the Brundtland report “Our common future” of the World Commission for the Environment, where it is defined as the satisfaction of current needs without compromising those of the future. habitat. In our study, data from field measurements are used to directly investigate the influence of biophysical parameters on this variability (Fig 1). Coastal development impacts may be direct (e.g., land filling, dredging, coral and sand mining for construction) or indirect (e.g., increased runoff of sediment and pollutants). The ocean and coastal zones under South Africa’s jurisdiction can ... economic costs of current sand mining are considered, Future studies of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness would also be strengthened by paired measurements of wave height reduction with and without habitat [39] accompanied by information on habitat parameters such as height, density and roughness [40,41,42]. In this paper, natural defences refer to existing coastal habitats within which wave reduction has been measured. Dots represent average values and error bars represent 95% Confidence Intervals). The higher cost of materials is passed on to developers. Sustainable Development Goals, Parties have agreed to conserve 10% of marine and coastal areas by 2020. Leakages: If outside interests own the tourism development, most of the economic benefits … We think that protecting the environment is an impediment to development. Incorporating Indigenous and local knowledge in planning and decision-making processes to ensure that these processes are inclusive and equitable. [9], Next the unit construction cost–i.e. Field measurements of % wave height reduction are plotted versus non-dimensional engineering parameters: (a) Hi/h in reefs (left, n = 27), red line indicates depth-limiting ratio for wave height, Hi/h = 0.78; (b) B/L in coral reefs (right, n = 34). also see ). Under all but 22 of the more than 3,000 plausible futures considered, implementation of the decarbonization plan would lead to economic benefits that exceed the costs. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s008, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s009, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s010, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154735.s011. Yes Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SN MWB IJL JNS. Also, site-specific variations in all these parameters will need to be considered when designing a nature-based defence project. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. All criteria for pairing sites were visually inspected and based on expert judgement (see S4 Table). No, Is the Subject Area "Mangrove swamps" applicable to this article? [5] Sites were paired if they were within 50 km of each other. construction cost per metre length of coastline–of 1 cubic metre of breakwater was estimated as: The COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique opportunity to build back better and bluer by protecting coastal ecosystems and coastal communities from further harm while supporting and preserving the natural systems that sustain them. Mangroves and seagrass / kelp beds are about half as effective, with mangroves occurring in the most sheltered environments (see S1 Table). For the more than 3 billion people who live near the ocean, coastal ecosystems support jobs, industries and trade, as well as provide food and buffering against storms and other severe natural events. The official wording is to "Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development". where Hi is the significant wave height (m) before the habitat (“incident”) and Hst is the significant wave height (m) after the habitat (“transmitted”). This reduction in wave height depends on habitat and site-specific ecological and geophysical parameters that influence the dynamics of incoming waves (Fig 1). Measures governments should take to enhance coastal resilience include: Local coastal communities, as well as indigenous peoples and artisanal fishers, often rely on coastal resources to support their livelihoods. Therefore, information on restoration costs was combined with data from nearby measurements of wave heights to estimate the wave reduction benefits of each restoration project. These losses reduce coastal resilience, as well as our ability to recover and adapt to climate change and other human-caused threats. From the fifty-two projects, a subset was identified that also reported observed and estimated coastal protection benefits of various types. No, Is the Subject Area "Seaweed" applicable to this article? The SDGs represent an ambitious agenda to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development by 2030. Coastal areas are used for tourism, fishing, industry, trade and transport. [10] Simplified submerged breakwater cross-section for replacement cost estimates, showing parameters that affect wave transmission. Fig is adapted from van der Meer et al. In March 2011, EPA issued the Second Prospective Report which looked at the results of the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2020. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Across all habitats, coral reefs emerge as having the greatest potential for coastal protection: they are highly effective at reducing wave heights and are also exposed to higher, more powerful waves. Field measurements of % wave height reduction are plotted versus habitat width for a) coral reefs (n = 34); b) mangroves (n = 14); c) salt-marshes (n = 15); d) seagrass/kelp beds (n = 6). on the coastal protection and risk reduction costs and benefits of projects involving restoration and management of coastal habitats. No, Is the Subject Area "Metaanalysis" applicable to this article? Plot (b) shown for the blue region in inset. They are also being driven by interest from national and multi-national agencies [10,12,14,15]. Examples of nature-based defence projects are growing rapidly in number, but much better reporting of effectiveness and cost effectiveness is necessary, for better understanding of their viability. Environment and Natural Resources Global Practice, The World Bank, Washington, DC, United States of America, Affiliation The meta-analyses of wave heights however show that wave height measurements in mangroves have so far been limited to lower waves than in salt-marshes (Table 1, S1 Table). Credits: Esri, HERE, DeLorme, NGA, USGS | Esri, HERE, DeLorme. • a rationale for the choice of the proposed set of indicators of sustainable development of the coastal zone; • details of how the indicators of sustainable development would be measured; • an example or two of a worked-up indicator; and, • suggestions as to how the indicator work could be taken forward. Wave height is the response variable for the meta-analyses, following a number of the reviewed studies that report reductions in terms of wave heights. The data for the wave reduction analyses are all obtained from field observations of wave heights and hydrological variables. Join now. A Review of Prefabrication Benefits for Sustainable and Resilient Coastal Areas December 2017 Conference: 6th International Network of Tropical Architecture Conference There is hence great interest in identifying effective, and cost effective solutions that help conserve habitats and protect coastlines [10,11]. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. A new paper by the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy explores four opportunities to ensure sustainable and resilient coastal zones. Asia’s six largest delta systems — Ganges Meghna-Brahmaputra, Indus, Irrawaddy, Mekong, Pearl and Yangtze — are all at risk from changes in flow, including from upstream dams, impoundments and the over-extraction of sand from rivers and coastal areas for concrete, glass and electronic manufacture. 2004 ), the costs of reducing coastal risks are mainly supported by national or regional budgets in the North Sea countries and almost never by … In brief, this guidance note finds the following: • Mangroves and coral reefs provide significant coastal protection benefits. No, Is the Subject Area "Marshes" applicable to this article? Therefore, the study uses average values of vegetation height and water depth for the parameter analyses. 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